CFIDS: Reduce Inflammation from Peroxynitrite Ion

Peroxynitrite Damage

Agents from Tafel Protocol Predicted to Down-Regulate NO/ONOO- Cycle and Peroxynitrite Ion Effects

Glutathione See “CFIDS: The Most Powerful antioxidant in the cell.”

     A-Lipoic acid and N-Acetyl-Cysteine – important to help regenerate reduced glutathione from oxidized glutathione 

     Riboflavin – helps reduce oxidized glutathione back to reduced glutathione

NO Scavengers:

     Hydroxy-B12 Subcutaneous

     Hemoglobin

     Magnesium Injections

 

Lower iNOS activity: 

     Phosphatidyl serine – reported to lower iNOS induction 

     Fish oil – For long chain omega-3 fatty acids known to lower iNOS induction as well as powerful anti-inflammatory 

     Folic acid – lowers uncoupling of nitric oxide synthases

O- Scavengers:

     Keep Uric Acid in high normal range

     Alpha Lipoic Acid HDL Cholesterol (but produces oxidized LDL in the process)

Lower NMDA excitotoxicity with:

     Magnesium (use Magnesium-Threonate if you suffer brain symptoms) and use magnesium malate for other forms of magnesium for injections during acute symptoms   

     Taurine – antioxidant and acts to lower excitotoxicity including NMDA activity

     Downregulate NMDA excitotoxicity with GABA agonists –these include the drug neurontin (gabapentin)–or Lyrica if that does not work, natural GABA agonists (Kava, Valerian Root, etc), and  Klonopin if you have brain symptoms 

     Pyridoxine (B6) – improves balance between glutamate and GABA, lowers excitotoxicity

Flavonoids, including “bioflavonoids,” found in foods and  Ginkgo biloba extract, cranberry extract, silymarin, and bilberry extract
Vitamin E and related Tocotrienols (forms of vitamin E reported to have special roles in lowering effects of excitotoxicity)
Coenzyme Q10 – acts both as antioxidant and to stimulate mitochondrial function 

Pyridoxal phosphate – improves glutamate/GABA ratio
Folic acid – lowers uncoupling of nitric oxide synthases 
Carotenoids (alpha-carotene, bixin, zeaxanthin and lutein) – lipid (fat) soluble peroxynitrite scavengers
Flavonoids (flavones, rutin, hesperetin and others)
Ascorbic acid (vitamin C)

Histamine blockers – mast cells which release histamine are activated by nitric oxide. In addition, Dr. Goldstein noted that suppressor T Cells (we don’t want!) have an H2 receptor that activates it–So H2 blockers should help improve immune function: Try Cimetidine 200 mg 1-2x/day (away from other meds because of breakdown pathways)

Valine and isoleucine – branched chain amino acids known to be involved in energy metabolism in mitochondria, and may be expected, therefore, to stimulate energy metabolism; modest levels may also lower excitotoxicity 

Betaine hydrochloride (HCl) – lowers reductive stress, hydrochloride -form should only be taken by those deficient in stomach acid 

Grape seed extract ( an especially powerful flavonoid)
Zinc – antioxidant properties and copper/zinc superoxide dysmutase precursor

 

Cheney Protocol Predicted to Down-Regulate NO/ONOO- Cycle Biochemistry


High dose hydroxocobalamin (B12) injections – nitric oxide scavenger
Whey protein – glutathione precursor
Guaifenesin – vanilloid antagonist?
NMDA blockers
Magnesium – lowers NMDA activity
Taurine – antioxidant and acts to lower excitotoxicity including NMDA activity
GABA agonists – GABA acts as an inhibitory neurotransmitter to lower NMDA activity – these include the drug neurontin (gabapentin)
Histamine blockers – mast cells which release histamine are activated by both nitric oxide and vanilloid stimulation and may therefore be part of the cycle mechanism: Cimetidine trial
Betaine hydrochloride (HCl) – Betaine lowers reductive stress, the hydrochloride form should only be used in those with low stomach acid. Betaine (trimethylglycine) is also listed separately in the protocol description
Flavonoids, including “bioflavonoids,” olive leaf extract, organic botanicals, hawthorn extract
Vitamin E and related Tocotrienols
Coenzyme Q10 – acts both as antioxidant and to stimulate mitochondrial function
A-lipoic acid
Selenium
Omega-3 and -6 fatty acids
Melatonin – as an antioxidant
Pyridoxal phosphate – improves glutamate/GABA ratio
Folic acid – lowers uncoupling of nitric oxide synthases


Agents from Teitelbaum Protocol Predicted to Down-Regulate NO/ONOO Cycle Biochemistry

 

Daily energy B-complex – B vitamins including high dose B6, riboflavin, thiamine, niacin and also folic acid. These fall into four categories that I have listed earlier in the chapter
Betaine hydrochloride (HCl) – lowers reductive stress, hydrochloride -form should only be taken by those deficient in stomach acid
Magnesium as magnesium glycinate and magnesium malate – lowers NMDA activity – often uses magnesium injections
A-Lipoic acid – important antiant helps regenerate reduced glutathioneoxid
Vitamin B12 IM injections, 3 mg injections (does not state whether this is hydroxocobalamin) – may act as potent nitric oxide scavenger
Eskimo fish oil – excellent source of long chain omega-3 fatty acids. Lowers iNOS induction, anti-inflammatory
Vitamin C
Grape seed extract (flavonoid)
Vitamin E, natural – does not state whether this includes g-tocopherol or tocotrienols
Physician’s protein formula, used as glutathione precursor
Zinc – antioxidant properties and copper/zinc superoxide dysmutase precursor
Acetyl-L-carnitine – important for restoring mitochondrial function
Coenzyme Q10 – both important antioxidant properties and stimulates mitochondrial function

 

Agents from Nicolson Protocol Predicted to Down-Regulate NO/ONOO- Cycle Biochemistry

 

Other phosphatidyl polyunsaturated lipids – this and the phosphatidyl choline are predicted to help restore the oxidatively damaged mitochondrial inner membrane
Magnesium – lowers NMDA activity, may aid in energy metabolism
Taurine – antioxidant activity and lowers excitoxicity including NMDA activity
Artichoke extract – as flavonoid source?
Spirulina – blue-green alga is a concentrated antioxidant source
Natural vitamin E – does not tell us whether this includes g-tocopherol or tocotrienols
Calcium ascorbate – vitamin C
a-Lipoic acid – important antioxidant, key role in regeneration of reduced glutathione, but also has role in energy metabolism
Vitamin B6 – balance glutamate and GABA levels, lowers excitotoxicity
Niacin – role in energy metabolism
Riboflavin – important in reduction of oxidized glutathione back to reduced glutathione; also has important role in mitochondrial function
Thiamin – role in energy metabolism
Vitamin B12 – as nitric oxide scavenger?
Folic acid – lowers nitric oxide synthase uncoupling


Agents from Petrovic Protocol Predicted to Down-Regulate NO/ONOO- Cycle Biochemistry

 

Valine and isoleucine – branched chain amino acids known to be involved in energy metabolism in mitochondria, and may be expected, therefore, to stimulate energy metabolism; modest levels may also lower excitotoxicity
Pyridoxine (B6) – improves balance between glutamate and GABA, lowers excitotoxicity
Vitamin B12 in the form of cyanocobalamin – cyanocobalamin is converted to hydroxocobalamin in the human body but the latter form will be more active as a nitric oxide scavenger, since it does not require such conversion
Riboflavin – helps reduce oxidized glutathione back to reduced glutathione
Carotenoids (alpha-carotene, bixin, zeaxanthin and lutein) – lipid (fat) soluble peroxynitrite scavengers
Flavonoids (flavones, rutin, hesperetin and others)
Ascorbic acid (vitamin C)
Tocotrienols – forms of vitamin E reported to have special roles in lowering effects of excitotoxicity
Thiamine (aneurin) – B vitamin involved in energy metabolism
Magnesium – lowers NMDA activity; may aid energy metabolism
Zinc – precursor of SOD
Betaine hydrochloride (HCl) – lowers reductive stress, hydrochloride form should only be used by those deficient in stomach acid
Essential fatty acids including long chain omega-3 fatty acids
Phosphatidyl serine – reported to lower iNOS induction

 

Pall/Ziem Protocol
Agents from Pall/Ziem Protocol Predicted to Down-Regulate NO/ONOO- Cycle Biochemistry

 

Nebulized, inhaled reduced glutathione
Nebulized, inhaled hydroxocobalamin (some use sublingual)
Mixed, natural tocopherols including g-tocopherol
Buffered vitamin C
Magnesium as malate
Four different flavonoid sources: Ginkgo biloba extract, cranberry extract, silymarin, and bilberry extract
Selenium as selenium – grown yeast
Coenzyme Q10
Folic acid
Carotenoids including lycopene, lutein and b-carotene
a-Lipoic acid
Zinc (modest dose), manganese (low dose) and copper (low dose)
Vitamin B6 in the form of pyridoxal phosphate
Riboflavin 5′-phosphate (FMN)
Betaine (trimethylglycine)
Dr. Ziem has recently added two additional agents: green tea extract (flanonoids) and acetyl L-carnitine.

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